Literature Review

Literature Review: Whitney Barber

ADOLESCENTS AND YOUTUBE: CREATION, PARTICIPATION AND CONSUMPTION

García Jiménez, A., Catalina García, B., & Cruz López de Ayala, M. (2016). ADOLESCENTS AND YOUTUBE: CREATION, PARTICIPATION AND CONSUMPTION. Revista Prisma Social, 60-89.

  • Addresses Privacy & Intimacy
  • Social media has a lot to do with the cultivation of emotional ties with these YouTubers.
  • Watching videos has become one of the first activities of children on the Internet.
  • Adolescents follow vloggers & communicate with other fans with the same interest.
  • YouTube prosumers
    • Develops “an exchange of knowledge, as well as managing and spreading information and expressing feelings”.
  • This article gives us an in-depth analysis of adolescent participation on YouTube

News rituals of participation: Negotiating temporalities, categories, and hierarchies of news-making on YouTube

Sumiala, J., & Tikka, M. (2015). News rituals of participation: Negotiating temporalities, categories, and hierarchies of news-making on YouTube. Anthropological Notebooks, 21(3), 5-20.

  • Digital news via YouTube & social media
  • Participation of news on YouTube
  • Shaping the social experiences of news via media outlets
  • “Rituals of Participation”
    • 1st Opening the video and its responses
    • 2nd The interaction between its responses
    • 3rd Video Responses
  • There is a section in the article that discusses vloggers and the interactions from their viewers.
    • Brings multiple interpretations of situations discussed in vlogs from viewers
    • Brings up YouTube citizenship
    • The comments and responses from viewers can shape the affect of news and the vloggers themselves. Their responses have a lot to do with what the vloggers put out for them to see in the future.

Social Media for Message Testing: A Multilevel Approach to Linking Favorable Viewer Responses with Message, Producer, and Viewer Influence on YouTube

Paek, H., Hove, T., & Jeon, J. (2012). Social Media for Message Testing: A Multilevel Approach to Linking Favorable Viewer Responses with Message, Producer, and Viewer Influence on YouTube. Conference Papers — International Communication Association, 1-34.

  • Message stats
    • Specifically, for YouTube analytics
  • Key interaction terms
  • Focuses on messages and the social influences on others
  • “YouTube is rated as the most visited video-sharing site and the second most popular website (and social media platform)”

These resources help me analyze YouTube participation and the digital societies that connects YouTube fans to Youtubers/ vloggers and their actions. All of my sources have to do with viewer responses/ audience collaboration.

 

Literature Review: Hannah Cottle

Forming Digital Self and Parasocial Relationships on YouTube

Chen, Chih-Ping. “Forming Digital Self and Parasocial Relationships on YouTube.” Journal of Consumer Culture, vol. 16, no. 1, Apr. 2014, pp. 232–254., doi:10.1177/1469540514521081.

  • People use YouTube to gain celebrity status because they can create many digital selves and present the one that best suits their audience to maintain popularity. Digital-self presentation strategies on YouTube videos include basking, mystification, self-promotion, and gender-switching. Basking means claiming association with celebrities, mystification is only showing what they want people to see, self-promotion is bragging about yourself, and gender-switching is developing different identities online to mask your real one and it includes race, class, gender, and age. Parasocial relationships are formed via digital self-impression management.

Fanning the Flames of Fandom: Celebrity Worship, Parasocial Relationships, and Stalking

Spizberg, Brian H, and William R Cupach. “Fanning the Flames of Fandom: Celebrity Worship, Parasocial Relationships, and Stalking.” Stalking, Threatening, and Attacking Public Figures, Oxford University Press, 2008.

  • Celebrities enjoy being fawned over however there are occasions were fans can take it way too far. There have been many cases in which fans claim to be in elaborate romantic relationships with people they have never met. Normally that wouldn’t matter they could simply be counted off as fanatics however when the situation becomes a threat to the celebrities in question or the fans themselves that’s when things become a problem. There is a fine line between being a fan and being obsessed to the point of following someone to the grave. Cases such as the attack on President Regan to impress a woman or the suicides following the death of John Lennon and other celebrities like him are only two of many cases where fandom becomes something more sinister and life threatening.

You May Know Me From YouTube: (Micro-) Celebrity in Social Media 

Marwick, A. E. (2015). You May Know Me From YouTube: (Micro-) Celebrity in Social Media. In A Companion to Celebrity. John Wiley & Sons.

  • Even though fame has been around basically forever, celebrity is closely linked to media. With new social media platforms being based on user created content, non-famous people can create large quantities of personal media and distribute it almost instantaneously to a global audience. Micro-celebrity is creating an easily consumable persona, responding directly to audiences, and sharing personal information to enhance emotional ties with fans. YouTube is a powerhouse for micro-celebrity because it is based almost entirely on the principals micro-celebrities are. Stars like Logan Paul and Miranda Sings are veritable powerhouses of micro-celebrity based on their online personas because they were not famous before and gain popularity by putting themselves out there for their fans.

 

Literature Review: Natalie Suarez

The Role of Swearing in Creating an Online Persona by Kristy Beers Fägersten

The use of English swearing contributes to the performance of PewDiePie as a persona conducive to a para-social relationship and allows Felix Kjellberg to shorten the social distance between him and his community of fans, by simulating casual conversation between friends.

The Platform is the Message by James Grimmelmann

  • This article hits on a key factor that went into at least the Logan Paul scandal- the balance between offensive and appropriate, sincere and ironic, drives the demand dynamic for online content. Additionally discusses the concept of kayfabe and how when a piece of content or a meme gets wider attention, the newly-arriving audience may not implicitly understand the promise or conceit, leading to two distinct interpretations.
  • “Optimizing what they create so that it will spread socially”.

Commenting on Comments: Investigating Responses to Antagonism on YouTube by Patricia G. Lange

  • Delineates ethnographic user complexity (casual users of YouTube vs. “YouTubers”)
  • Gives an example of one type of language to look out for (Vocabulary employed by ‘haters’) debunks the idea that hateful comments are a result of anonymity, considering those who post videos sharing their face and voice area are no less likely to be targets for bullying.
  • Also “Performing technical affiliation”

Source 1 & 2 on my list touch behaviors that creators use to grow and maintain their audience. For PewDiePie that means cultivating an illusion of intimacy with his “bros” while Logan Paul has to keep being “dumb and outré” or his followers will move on to the next “Dudebro”